Success through Trial and Error
During the first years of the war, Lincoln struggled to find a commander who would attack the Confederate armies aggressively. In 1863, Ulysses S. Grant led a successful campaign against Vicksburg, Mississippi, thereby securing Union control of the Mississippi River. In March 1864, Lincoln named Grant commander of the Union armies. Grant carried out a strategy of simultaneous attacks on the South’s economy as well as its armies. On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army of Northern Virginia, effectively ending the war.
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